Introduction to Homeostasis Quiz
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A 27-year-old man is admitted to the ER after suffering a motorcycle accident. At the scene of the accident the man EMTs diagnosed multiple broken bones and laceration with significant blood loss. Paramedics administer intravenous fluids and transport the patient to the hospital. At the time of admission, the patient is responsive to both verbal and painful stimuli. Vital signs: heart rate is 147 BPM and blood pressure is 70/0 mmHg.
The output from the nucleus tractus solitarius in the medulla would beCorrectIncorrect
A 24-year-old medical student presents to the ER with light-headedness and dyspnea. He has a 3-year history of supraventricular tachycardia and have been prescribe propranolol to manage. He admitted to an attending physician on arrival that he has been studying long hours and hasn’t been compliant with his medication “for quite some time.”
Vital signs: HR is 147 BPM.
Physical examination is non-contributory
Examination of a 12-leads ECG shows narrow QRS complexes and p waves that are indistinguishable. The patient is diagnosed with AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia. Before administering the drug of choice to lower the HR and attending physician decides to perform a carotid massage in an attempt to lower his HR. By what mechanism does this maneuver serve to lower the HR in this patient?CorrectIncorrect
A 33-year-old male is an endurance athlete in training for an upcoming triathlon. During the week prior to the event he focuses on improving his overall time by making a faster start at the beginning marathon by pushing his speed over the first mile. On the morning of the event, the temperature is 78 F with 81% humidity. In the middle of mile 3, the patient starts staggering and then collapses. He is brought to the nearby hospital ER by race EMTs. On arrival to the ER, he appears confused, has poor skin turgor, his eyes are sunken and his mouth is dry.
- Serum sodium…………………158 mEq/L
- Urine specific gravity……….1.034 (serum specific gravity = 1.010)
The increased urine specific gravity is achieved by activation of which receptor?CorrectIncorrect
A 14-year old adolescent male is admitted to the ER because he becomes weak and confused on a school outing, Friends who are with him state that he was complaining of trouble reading the signs on the trail as his vision was blurry. He has been recently diagnosed with type I diabetes. He is known to skip taking his insulin as he finds it embarrassing to inject himself in front of his classmates.
Vital signs: BP: 110/70 mmHg, HR 110 /min, RR: 24 /min, temp: 99.2 F, SaO2: 98% on room air
During the physical examination the physician notes a fruity odor to the breath. There is poor skin turgor and tongue is dry.
- Glucose ……………..375 mg/dL
- HCO3:…………………18 mEq/L
The patient’s findings are most likely due to immune damage to theCorrectIncorrect
A 75-year-old woman visits her physician for follow-up. She has hypertension and diabetes mellitus, type 2. Current medications include hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril, and spironolactone. She is poorly compliant with her medications. She has no other concerns this visit.
Vital signs: BP: 148/93 mmHg, HR: 89 /min, RR: 12 /min, temp 98.9 F, SaO2: 97% on room air
- Creatinine……………2.2 mg/dL
- eGFR…………………..19 mL/min/1.73 m^2
- BUN……………………36 mg/dL
- Calcium……………… 8.9 mg/dL
- Albumin………………4.5 mg/dL
In view of this history and laboratory findings, hyperplasia of which cell type could be expected?CorrectIncorrect