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Introduction to Renal System

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Kidney has seven basic clinical presentations, making it one of the more difficult systems to learn. Some presentations are unique to the kidney, such as uremic syndrome and oliguria. Others overlap with other systems, such as the edema of nephrotic syndrome, hematuria of nephritic syndrome, and resistant hypertension of renovascular disease. The doctor must have an approach to each presentation and an understanding of the diagnostic tests used.